The field of variable exponent function spaces has witnessed an explosive growth in recent years. The standard reference article for basic properties is already 20 years old. Thus this self-contained monograph collecting all the basic properties of variable exponent Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces is timely and provides a much-needed accessible reference work utilizing consistent notation and terminology. Many results are also provided with new and improved proofs. The book also presents a number of applications to PDE and fluid dynamics.